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Citing Sources : In-text citations

This guide provides information on citing your sources in some of the most commonly used citation formats: APA, MLA, and Chicago.

General APA format for in-text citations

When using APA format, follow the author-date-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source as well as the page or paragraph number should appear in the text. If the quotation appears mid-sentence, end the passage with quotation marks, cite the source in parentheses immediately after the quotation marks, and continue the sentence.

Examples of correct in-text citations

Author’s name in text (paraphrase):

In the Silent Spring, Carson (1962) made an intelligent and passionate case for the immediate cessation of careless and pervasive pesticide use.

Author’s name in text (direct quote):

Carson (1962) likens the use of pesticides “as crude a weapon as the cave man’s club” (p. 297) and I agree with her.

Author's name not in text (paraphrase):

Silent Spring was one of the first books to discuss the dangers of pesticide use (Carson, 1962).

Author's name not in text (direct quote):

As much as the earth is “a fabric on the one hand delicate and destructible, on the other miraculously tough and resilient” (Carson, 1962, p. 297) so is the sea.

The full entry for this source on the References list would look like this:  Carson, R. (1962). Silent spring. Greenwich, CT: Fawcett.

No Author listed for source (cite by title) :

When there is no author, not even an organizational author, listed for a work, include the first few words of the title followed by the publication year in parentheses at the end of the sentence.

In-text example: A recent study by economists at the New York Federal Bank concludes that a person with a bachelor’s or associate’s degree will earn far more money than someone with only a high school diploma (“Is a College Degree,” 2014).

The full entry for this source on the References list would look like this:  Is a college degree still worth it? Study says yes. (2014). AP Financial Press. Retrieved from

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