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Citing Sources : In-text Citations

This guide provides information on citing your sources in some of the most commonly used citation formats: APA, MLA, and Chicago.

MLA 8th edition style for in-text citations

The purpose of in-text citations is to show exactly how you used others' ideas and words.

Your in-text citations should always refer the reader to the source on your Works Cited page, and will typically direct them to the exact location (typically a page number) in the source that the information is from.

Specific examples are below:

Citation Situation Examples
Paraphrasing information when the author's name is in the text Flom notes that prior to the musical Hair, there were no microphones onstage, and actors had to project their voices to be heard by the audience (31).
Paraphrasing text without mentioning the author's name Prior to the musical Hair, there were no microphones onstage, and actors had to project their voices to be heard by the audience (Flom 31).
Paraphrasing information when the author's name is in the text-- with a quote from the source Flom notes that prior to the musical Hair, "musical theater productions were unamplified," and actors had to project their voices to be heard by the audience (31).
Paraphrasing text without mentioning the author's name-- with a quote Prior to the musical Hair, "musical theater productions were unamplified," and actors had to project their voices to be heard by the audience (Flom 31).
Author's Name In Text, but  with only part of the sentence referencing the author's ideas. In his book about musical theater auditions, Jonathan Flom writes that "Nobody gets cast from a first audition" (51), but I disagree because I did once.
Author's Name in the reference,  with only part of the sentence referencing the author's ideas. It is important to remember "that it's incumbent upon you to be prepared in every possible way" (Flom 17).
When your quote is longer than 4 lines

I had never given much thought to vocal warm-ups, but Flom has some good guidelines for the big day of your audition:

A full vocal and physical warm-up is ideal, but in reality it's not always possible.

At the very least, be sure you do plenty of speaking in various vocal registers throughout

the hours leading up to an audition. This will get you minimally opened up. If you're in a car,

sing along to the radio (17).

This is such great advice and I can't wait to try it! I think that it will help solve that problem that I sometimes have where my voice sounds like a frog.

 

NOTES: Remember to double-space and indent quotes that are longer than 4 lines. Quotation marks are not needed. Include the page number and author (if not in text) in parentheses at the end.

When 2 or more works by the same author are in your works cited page Davis writes about a trial in which "U.S. District Court judge Charles Breyer prohibited Rosenthal from presenting a medical marijuana defense, so the jury never knew about the legal authority under which Rosenthal grew marijuana" (Arbitrary Justice 97).
When a source in your works cited page is listed by title only The writer notes that anarchists "see laws as nothing more than the shadows of our predecessors’ customs, lengthened by the years to seem more wise than our own judgment" (Fighting for Our Lives 9).

 

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