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Citing Sources

Guide to citing sources in APA and MLA styles (more styles coming soon).

American Psychological Association (APA) Citation Style

This guide is a quick introduction to APA style and common citations. Be sure to consult the Publication Manual of the APA, 7th Edition and the APA Style Blog for detailed standards and procedures. 

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APA Reference List

Basic Format:
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date). Title of the work. Source where you can retrieve the work. URL or DOI if available

I'm citing a...

 

  1. Author(s). [List each author's last name and initials as Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. Use an ampersand (&) before the final author's name. Read more from the APA Style Blog if there are 21 or more authors.]
  2. (Year). (xxxx).
  3. Title of the article. [Only the first word of the title and subtitle and proper nouns are capitalized].
  4. Title of the Journal, [Capitalized and in italics],
  5. Volume # of the journal [in italics]
  6. (Issue), (if any),
  7. Page range. [xx-xx].
  8. DOI (Digital Object Identifier) [Read more about DOIs from the APA Style Blog.]

 

Ashing‐Giwa, K. T., Padilla, G., Tejero, J., Kraemer, J., Wright, K., Coscarelli, A., Clayton, S., Williams, I., & Hills, D. (2004). Understanding the breast cancer experience of women: A qualitative study of African American, Asian American, Latina and Caucasian cancer survivors. Psycho‐Oncology: Journal of the Psychological, Social and Behavioral Dimensions of Cancer, 13(6), 408-428. https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.750

 

  1. Author(s). [List each author's last name and initials as Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. Use an ampersand (&) before the final author's name.]
  2. (Year, Month Date). (xxxx, Month xx).
  3. Title of the article. [Only the first word of the title and subtitle and proper nouns are capitalized.]
  4. Title of the Newspaper or Publication. [Capitalized and in italics].
  5. URL [If article is from a library database, omit URL.]

 

Kennedy, M. (2018, October 15). To prevent wildfires, PG&E pre-emptively cuts power to thousands in California. NPR. https://www.npr.org/2018/10/15/657468903/to-prevent-wildfires-pg-e-preemptively-cuts-power-to-thousands-in-california

 

Books (Print or Online)
  1. Author(s). Note: List each author's last name and initials as Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. Use an ampersand (&) before the final author's name.
  2. (Year).
  3. Title of the book Note: For works that stand alone (e.g. books, reports), italicize the title. Only capitalize the first word of the title and subtitle and any proper nouns.
  4. (Edition). Note: If there is an edition or volume, include it in parentheses and use abbreviations of ed. or vol.
  5. Publisher.
  6. Note: You do not need to include the publisher location or databases where you retrieved it.
Silbert-Flagg, J., & Pillitteri, A. (2018). Maternal & child health nursing : Care of the childbearing & childrearing family (8th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.
  1. Author(s). Note: List each chapter author's last name and initials as Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. Use an ampersand (&) before the final author's name.
  2. (Year).
  3. Title of the chapter. Note: For works that are part of a greater whole (e.g. articles, chapter), use sentence case. Only the first word of the title and subtitle and proper nouns are capitalized.
  4. In Editor(s), Note: List each editor's last name and initials as A. A. Editor, B. B. Editor, & C. C. Editors, include (Ed.) or (Eds.) in parentheses, and end with a comma.
  5. Title of the book Note: For works that stand alone (e.g. books, reports), italicize the title. Only capitalize the first word of the title and subtitle and any proper nouns.
  6. (pp.xx-xx).
  7. Publisher. Note: You do not need to include the publisher location or databases where you retrieved it.
McFarland, J. (2017). On privilege, authority, and abuses of professorial power. In E. Knox (Ed.), Trigger warnings: History, theory, context (pp. 165-178). Rowman & Littlefield.
  1. Author(s). Note: List each author's last name and initials as Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. If there is no author, spell out the organization.
  2. (Year, Month Date). Note: Provide as specific a date as is available, but may be only the year. If there is no date use (n.d.).
  3. Title of page or section. Note: Italicize the title of the page.
  4. Source. Note: If the source is different from the author as organization, list it here.
  5. URL

Electronic Frontier Foundation. (n.d.). Net neutrality. https://www.eff.org/issues/net-neutrality
  1. Author(s). Note: List each author's last name and initials as Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. If there is no author, spell out the organization.
  2. (Year, Month Date). Note: Provide as specific a date as is available.
  3. Title of the report or document. Note: For works that stand alone (e.g. books, reports), italicize the title. Only capitalize the first word of the title and subtitle and any proper nouns.
  4. Source. (Report No. ## ). Note: If the source is different from the author as organization, list it here.
  5. URL
San Francisco Department of Public Health. (2019, April). Sexually transmitted disease annual summary, 2017. https://www.sfdph.org/dph/files/reports/StudiesData/STD/SFSTDAnnlSum2017.pdf

APA In-text Citations

Basic Format:
(Author's Last Name or Organization, Year).

I'm using...

If you're quoting the exact words of someone else, introduce the quote with an in-text citation in parentheses. Any sentence punctuation goes after the closing parenthesis.

  • According to Shavers (2007), "Direct quote" (p. #).
  • Shavers (2007) found that "Direct quote" (p. #).
  • [Some other introduction] "Direct quote" (Shavers, 2007, p. 1021).

 

If you're directly quoting more than 40 words...

Use a blockquote. Block quotes don't need quotation marks, but are indented 1/2" as a visual cue of a citation. The in-text citation in parentheses goes after the punctuation of the quotation.

Shavers (2007) study found the following:

While research studies have established that socioeconomic status influences disease incidence, severity and access to healthcare, there has been relatively less study of the specific manner in which low SES influences receipt of quality care and consequent morbidity and mortality among patients with similar disease characteristics, particularly among those who have gained access to the healthcare system. (p. 1021)

Pro Tip: Use direct quotes sparingly! Research cited in an APA paper is focused more on the synthesis of findings from a variety of research studies, and less about the exact phrasing or argument of an individual.

Paraphrasing or summarizing the main findings or takeaways from a research article is the preferred method of citing sources in an APA paper. Always include the last name of the author(s) and the year of the article, so your reader can find the full citation in the reference list.

According to Shavers (2007), limitations of studying socioeconomic status in research on health disparities include difficulties in collecting data on socioeconomic status and the complications of classifying women, children, and employment status, among others (p. 1016).

I'm citing...

You only need the author's last name and the year.

(Abrams, 2018)

Connect both authors' last names with & (ampersand), and include the year.

(Wegener & Petty, 1994)

If there are 3 or more authors use et al., which means "and others."

(Harris et al., 2018)

If the work has no author, use a shortened form of the title in parentheses. Note that titles are capitalized in in-text citations.

Book with no author: (Interpersonal Skills, 2019)

Article with no author: ("Understanding Sensory Memory," 2018)

What does the general format of an APA paper look like?

What does the general format of an APA paper look like? 

How do I make a hanging indent in Word?

How do I make a hanging indent in Word?

1. Highlight the citaiton with your cursor. 

2. Right click. 

3. Select Paragraph.

4. Under Indentation, select Special and Hanging.

Animated gif of creating a hanging indent in Word. Highlight the full citation. Right click. Go to Paragraph. To to the Special drop down menu, select Hanging. Select Okay.

How do I get my page numbers to start at 1 on the second page?

How do I get my page numbers to start at 1 on the second page? 

1. Double click the header on the second page. 

2. Select Page Numbers and top right. 

3. Right click the page number. 

4. Select Format Page Numbers.

5. Change Start at from 1 to 0. 

Note: Make sure the header is set to Different First Page for the running head. 

Animated gif of starting page numbers at 1 on the second page in Word.

CC License

Creative Commons License CC by NC 4.0 This guide was adapted from a guide created by Tessa Withorn and Maggie Clarke and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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