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Citing Sources

Guide to citing sources in APA, MLA, ASA, and Vancouver/NLM.

Vancouver/NLM Citation Style

Vancouver/NLM Citation Style, 2nd Edition

 

book cover Citing Medicine: the NLM Style Guide

Jump to a section on this page by selecting one of the following: 

Vancouver Style is identical to NLM Style (or National Library of Medicine).

This guide is a quick introduction to Vancouver/NLM Style and common citations. For additional examples and guidance, please see the full book, available for free, at Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers

The style "follows rules established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, now maintained by the U.S. National Library of Medicine. It is also known as Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals," according to Monash University Library's Vancouver Style page.

Vancouver/NLM Reference List Examples

Basic Format:
Author AA, Author BB, Author CC. Title. Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Page range.

I'm citing a...

 

Online Journal Article

  1. Author(s) [Last Name, First Initial Middle Initial. If there are more than 1 author, all names follow same pattern Last Name, First Initial Middle Initial with commas separating authors and a period at the end].
  2. Title of the article. [Only the first word is capitalized].
  3. Title of the journal [Internet]. [Journal Title can be abbreviated, all major words capitalized, followed by [Internet] in brackets],
  4. Date of publication; [Year Month Day followed by semi-colon];
  5. cited Date; [date the e-article was cited, not accessed, with the word cited followed by Year Abbreviated Month Day followed by semi-colon]
  6. Volume # [of the journal]
  7. (Issue #): [no space after Volume # and in parentheses, followed by colon]:
  8. Page range. [xx-xx].
  9. Available from: DOI (Digital Object Identifier) or URL. (If no DOI, use URL)
  10. See more about citing Journal Articles on the Internet
Doyle JJ, Coate JE. Polyploidy, the nucleotype, and novelty: the impact of genome doubling on the biology of the cell. International Journal of Plant Sciences [Internet]. 2019 Jan [cited 2021 Apr 30];180(1):1–52. Available from: https://search-ebscohost-com.ccsf.idm.oclc.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=fsr&AN=133686826&site=ehost-live.

Print Article

  1. Author(s) [Last Name, First Initial Middle Initial. If there are more than 1 author, all names follow same pattern Last Name, First Initial Middle Initial with commas separating authors and a period at the end].
  2. Title of the article. [Only the first word is capitalized].
  3. Title of the Journal. [Journal title can be abbreviated and all major words capitalized].
  4. Date of publication; [Year Month Day followed by semi-colon];
  5. Volume # [of the journal]
  6. (Issue #): [no space after Volume # and in parentheses, followed by colon]:
  7. Page range. [xx-xx].
Aitchison JD, Rout MP. The yeast nuclear pore complex and transport through it. Genetics. 2012 Mar;190(3):855–83.

 

 

  1. Author(s). [Last Name, First Initial Middle Initial.]
  2. Title of the article. [Only the first word and proper nouns are capitalized].
  3. Title of the Newspaper or Publication, Edition (if electronic, [newspaper on the Internet]).
  4. Year Month Day: [of publication, followed by colon]:
  5. Section:pages (column). [for example: Sect. A:12 (col. 1).].
  6. (If online)Available from: URL [URL].

 

Kennedy, M. To prevent wildfires, PG&E pre-emptively cuts power. NPR [news source on the Internet]. 2018 Oct 15;15-18. Available from: https://www.npr.org/2018/10/15/657468903/to-prevent-wildfires-pg-e-preemptively-cuts-power-to-thousands-in-california

 

Print Book

  1. Author(s) [Last Name, First Initial Middle Initial. Multiple authors follow same format].
  2. Title of the book. [Only first word and proper nouns are capitalized].
  3. City of Publication:[Capitalized and followed by colon]
  4. Publisher;[Capitalized and followed by semi-colon];
  5. Year [xxxx].
  6. Pagination. [# of total pages in book, followed by period].
  7. See more about citing an entire print book.

 

Compagno LJ, Dando M, Fowler SL. Sharks of the world. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 2005. 368p.

eBook

  1. Author(s) [Last Name, First Initial Middle Initial. If multiple authors, separate each author with comma and end with period].
  2. Title of the book [Internet]. [Only first word is capitalized, with Internet in brackets].
  3. City of Publication:[Capitalized and followed by colon]:
  4. Publisher;[Capitalized and followed by semi-colon];
  5. Date Published. [cited Year Mon Day].
  6. Pagination. [# of total pages in book].
  7. Available from: URL (or DOI)..
  8. See more about citing an entire book or book section on the Internet.

 

Ault CR. Do elephants have knees? And other stories of darwinian origins [Internet]. Ithaca: Comstock Publishing Associates; 2017 [cited 2021 Apr 30]. (UPCC Book Collections on Project MUSE). Available from: https://search-ebscohost-com.ccsf.idm.oclc.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=1341588&site=ehost-live.

 

  1. Author(s) of the chapter [Last Name, First Initial Middle Initial (all authors in this format, in order listed in book) separated by commas and ending with period].
  2. Title of chapter In: [Capitalize only the first word, followed by In with a colon]:
  3. Editor name(s), editor(s). [Last Name, First Initial Middle Initial (all editors in this format, in order of authorship list, followed by editor(s))].
  4. Title of the book. [Capitalize only the first word and any proper nouns].
  5. Number edition (if any).
  6. Place of Publication: [Full name of city capitalized followed by colon]:
  7. Publisher Name;[Capitalized and followed by semi-colon];
  8. Year of Publication. [xxxx].
  9. Page range of chapter [p. xxx-xxx].

 

Keith, WN, Bilsland, AE. Targeting telomerase: therapeutic options for cancer treatment. In: Rudolph, KL, editor. Telomeres and telomerase in aging, disease, and cancer: molecular mechanisms of adult stem cell ageing. Berlin: Springer; 2008. p. 247-284.

 

  1. Author or organization or Website [Full name of organization].
  2. Title [Internet]. [Title of page, article, or item followed by Internet in brackets].
  3. Place of Publication (if applicable): [Full name of city, followed by colon]:
  4. Publisher (if applicable);
  5. Date of publication, update or revision; Date of citation. [updated (or revised) Year Abbreviated Month Day; cited Year Abbreviated Month Day].
  6. Available from: URL [entire URL (only end with period if URL ends with a slash)].
  7. See more about citing a Web Site.

 

Preidt, R. Who is using herbal kratom? [Internet]. WebMD HealthDay; Updated 2021 Apr 29; cited 2021 May 3. Available from: https://www.webmd.com/mental-health/addiction/news/20210429/who-is-using-herbal-kratom

 

  1. Author/Creator Name. [Last name, First initial Middle initial].
  2. Year. [Year of production or release].
  3. Title of film or Video. [Only first word and any proper nouns are capitalized and followed by period].
  4. Name of website where it was viewed, [Capitalized],
  5. Release or Upload Date. [Month Day].
  6. Format, [If applicable, usually Video or Film],
  7. Running Time. [x:xx if longer than 1 hour].
  8. Available from: [URL]. [entire URL (only end with period if URL ends with a slash)].

 

Henochowicz SI, Zieve D. 2021. Allergies. Bethesda, MD: US National Library of Medicine, Updated May 4. Video, 0:1:05. Available from: https://medlineplus.gov/ency/anatomyvideos/000002.htm
Films Media Group. 2015. Great white lies. Films on demand, Uploaded Jan 24. Documentary film, 50:23. Available from: https://digital-films-com.ccsf.idm.oclc.org/p_ViewVideo.aspx?xtid=137734&tScript=0

 

  1. Author, Creator or Organization. [Last name First Initial Middle Initial. If no artist, leave blank].
  2. Title [image on Internet]. [Only first word capitalized followed by image on Internet in brackets].
  3. Publisher or Website Name; [if different from Author, followed by a semicolon];
  4. Upload or Updated Date; cited date. [updated Year Abbreviated Month Day; cited Year Abbreviated Month Day].
  5. Available from: URL [entire URL (only end with period if URL ends with a slash)].

 

Chakrabarti D, Akhtar N. 2021. White plaque on the tongue [image on Internet]. N Engl J Med; cited 2021 May 20. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMicm2032955
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Shingles on face [image on Internet]. Updated 2011 Jan 10; cited 2012 Nov 6]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/shingles/about/photos.html

 

Vancouver/NLM In-text Citations

Basic Format:
A number is allocated to a source in the order in which it is cited in the text. If the source is referred to again, the same number is used. Use Arabic numerals (1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9). Either square [ ] or curved brackets ( ) can be used as long as it is consistent. Example: ...as one author has put it "the darkest days were still ahead".(1)

I'm using...

Page numbers are not usually included with the citation number. However should you wish to specify the page number of the source the page/s should be included in the following format:

...as one author has put it "the darkest days were still ahead"(1 p23)

Peart (3 p16-18) has argued that...

 

 

If you're directly quoting more than 40 words...

Use a blockquote. Block quotes don't need quotation marks, but are indented 1/2" as a visual cue of a citation.

Peart's (3 p16-18) study found the following:

While research studies have established that socioeconomic status influences disease incidence, severity and access to healthcare, there has been relatively less study of the specific manner in which low SES influences receipt of quality care and consequent morbidity and mortality among patients with similar disease characteristics, particularly among those who have gained access to the healthcare system.

The preferred method is to list each reference number separated by a comma, or by a dash for a sequence of consecutive numbers. There should be no spaces between commas or dashes

For example: Peart (1,5,6-8).

CC License

Creative Commons License CC by NC 4.0 This guide was created by Carolyn Caffrey Gardner and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


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