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Citing Sources

Guide to citing sources in APA, MLA, ASA, and Vancouver/NLM.

Chicago Citation Style

Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition

This guide is a quick introduction to Chicago style, also called Turabian Style, and common citations. Consult the Chicago Manual of Style Online or check with a librarian for more detailed standards and procedures.

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Author-Date or Notes-and-Bibliography Style?

Chicago style can take two forms.  One form uses the combination of brief, in-text citations in the body of the paper and a reference list with full, corresponding citations at the end of the paper just like MLA and APA styles. This form of Chicago style is called the Author-Date system.

The other form is where, instead of in-text citations, raised numbers (called superscript) are used after quotes and paraphrases in the text of the paper. Each number corresponds to numbered notes at the "foot" or bottom of the page on which it appears, where a full citation is given. This section of each page in a paper is often called the footnotes or endnotes. This form often includes a full reference list, or bibliography, at the end of the paper. This form of Chicago style is called the Notes-and-Bibliography system.

To determine which form you should use, check with your instructor or check your assignment. Or, use the form that others in your field use or talk to a librarian.

Chicago Reference List

Basic Format:
Author's Last Name, First Name, Middle Name (Subsequent author names are reversed). "Title." Title of Source Volume number, Issue number (Month or Season and Year of Publication): page range. If online, Access Date and DOI or URL.

I'm citing a...


  1. Author(s). [Last Name, First Name, Middle Name. If more than 1 author, First Name Last Name, followed by commas. If more than three authors, list the first three followed by et al.].
  2. "Title of the Article" [Capitalized and in quotation marks].
  3. Title of the Journal [Capitalized and in italics followed by no punctuation]
  4. Volume # of the journal
  5. no. Issue # [if any, begin with no. and then the issue #]
  6. (Month or Season and Year of Publication:) [in parentheses followed by colon]:
  7. Page range [xx-xx].
  8. If online, Accessed Date and DOI or URL. [Accessed full Month Day, Year followed by full DOI or URL, not hyperlinked, followed by period].
Scott, Niall. "Heavy Metal and the Deafening Threat of the Apolitical." Popular Music History 6, no. 1-2 (2011): 224–239.
Wortham, Stanton, Katherine Mortimer, and Elaine Allard. "Mexicans as Model Minorities in the New Latino Diaspora." Anthropology & Education Quarterly 40, no. 4 (2009): 388–404. Accessed May 20, 2021. doi:10.1111/j.1548-1492.2009.01058.x.


  1. Author(s) [Last Name, First Name, Middle Name. If more than 1 author, First Name Last Name, followed by commas. If more than three authors, list the first three followed by et al.]
  2. "Title of the Article" Capitalized and in quotation marks.
  3. Title of the Newspaper or Publication [Capitalized and in italics],
  4. Month, day, year of publication.
  5. (If online) URL. [Full URL, not hyperlinked, ending with a period].


Badger, Emily. "San Francisco Restaurants Can’t Afford Waiters. So They’re Putting Diners to Work." New York Times, June 25, 2018.
Bonesteel, Matt. "Athletes’ Petition Calls for Congress to End Qualified Immunity for Police." The Washington Post, June 10, 2020.


Print Book
  1. Author(s). [Last Name, First Name].
  2. Title of the Book. [Capitalized and in italics].
  3. Place of Publication: [Full name of city, abbreviation of state]:
  4. Publisher,
  5. Year of Publication. [xxxx].


Carroll, Michael, and Rosaly M. C. Lopes. Antarctica : Earth’s Own Ice World, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2019.
  1. Author(s). [Last Name, First Name].
  2. Title of the Book. [Capitalized and in italics].
  3. Place of Publication: [Full name of city, abbreviation of state]:
  4. Publisher,
  5. Year of Publication. [xxxx].
  6. URL or Format. [Full URL not hyperlinked, or format of ebook such as Kindle].


Lowe, Kelly Fisher. The Words and Music of Frank Zappa. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 2006.


  1. Author(s) of the chapter. [Last Name, First Name, Middle Name. If more than 1 author, First Name Last Name, followed by commas. If more than three authors, list the first three followed by et al.].
  2. "Title of the Chapter" In [Capitalized and in quotation marks, followed by the word In]
  3. Title of the Book, [Italicized and followed by a comma],
  4. edited by (Editor(s) of the book), [edited by Editor's Full Name, followed by a comma],
  5. Chapter Page range. [xx-xx].
  6. Place of Publication: [Full name of city, abbreviation of state or country, followed by colon]:
  7. Publisher, [Publisher's Name, followed by comma],
  8. Year.


Perrone, Julie. "The 'House of Hockey': Spatialized Memories of the Montreal Forum" In The Same but Different : Hockey in Quebec, edited by Jason Blake and Andrew C. Holman. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2017.


  1. Author or organization. [Full name of author or organization].
  2. Title of page, section, or document [In quotation marks].
  3. Website name,
  4. Accessed Date. [page accessed Month Day, Year].
  5. URL.


Center for Disease Control and Prevention. "Protect Yourself with Vaccination". Accessed February 4, 2019.
Germain, Thomas. "Best Headphones for Under $50". Consumer Reports. Accessed May 25, 2021.


  1. Author Name, role (ex. director or producer) or Organization. [Last name, First name].
  2. Title of Film or Video [Capitalized and in italics]
  3. (Year of release), [Year of production or release],
  4. Name of website where it was viewed, [Capitalized],
  5. Format, [If applicable, usually Video or Film],
  6. Running Time. [x:xx:xx if longer than 1 hour].
  7. URL. [entire URL, not hyperlinked].


Schwartzberg, Louis, director. Fantastic Fungi (2019), YouTube Movies, Film, 1:20.
PBS (Public Broadcasting Corporation). Women, Power and Politics (2008), Now, Television show, Aired September 19,
Films Media Group. Signing Black in America (2021), Films on Demand, August 12, Video, :27.


  1. Artist or Creator Name, [Last name, First name, followed by a comma. If no artist, leave blank],
  2. Title or Description of Image, [Capitalized and italicized],
  3. Place of Publication: [where the item was produced, displayed, archived, website, etc, followed by colon]:
  4. Publisher's Name, [if necessary, followed by comma],
  5. Date of Publication. [Date the image was created, followed by period].
  6. (if online) URL. [Entire URL, not hyperlinked].


Hoffman, Hans, A Hare in the Forest, Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, ca 1585.
University of Chicago, Map of Chicago and Suburbs, Chicago: Charles T. Gilbert Real Estate, University of Chicago Digital Preservation Collection, 1890.


Chicago In-text Citations

Basic Format:
(Last Name Year, page(s)).

I'm using...

If you're quoting the exact words of someone else, introduce the quote with an in-text citation in parentheses. Page numbers are included in the in-text citation after a colon with no space. Any sentence punctuation goes after the closing parenthesis.

  • According to Shavers (2007:71), "Direct quote".
  • Shavers (2007:71) found that "Direct quote".
  • [Some other introduction] "Direct quote" (Shavers 2007:1021).


If you're directly quoting more than 40 words...

Use a blockquote. Block quotes don't need quotation marks, but are indented 1/2" as a visual cue of a citation.

Shavers (2007:1021) study found the following:

While research studies have established that socioeconomic status influences disease incidence, severity and access to healthcare, there has been relatively less study of the specific manner in which low SES influences receipt of quality care and consequent morbidity and mortality among patients with similar disease characteristics, particularly among those who have gained access to the healthcare system.

Tip: Use direct quotes sparingly! Research cited in a paper is focused more on the synthesis of findings from a variety of research studies, and less about the exact phrasing or argument of an individual.

Paraphrasing or summarizing the main findings or takeaways from a research article is the preferred method of citing sources in a Chicago style paper. Always include the last name of the author(s) and the year of the article, so your reader can find the full citation in the reference list.

According to Shavers (2007), limitations of studying socioeconomic status in research on health disparities include difficulties in collecting data on socioeconomic status and the complications of classifying women, children, and employment status, among others.

I'm citing...

You only need the author's last name and the year with no quotation marks.

(Stipe 2010)

Connect both authors' last names with and and include the year.

(DeGarmo and Tate 1988)

If there are 3 authors...

In the first in-text citation:
(Peart, Lifeson, and Lee 2015)

In subsequent citations:
(Peart et al. 2015)

If there are 4+ authors...

You only need the first author's name followed by et al. and the year.
(Cornell et al. 2017)

How do I make a hanging indent in Word?

How do I make a hanging indent in Word?

1. Highlight the citaiton with your cursor. 

2. Right click. 

3. Select Paragraph.

4. Under Indentation, select Special and Hanging.

Animated gif of creating a hanging indent in Word. Highlight the full citation. Right click. Go to Paragraph. To to the Special drop down menu, select Hanging. Select Okay.

How can I save time formatting my paper?

How can I save time formatting my paper? 

Microsoft Word and Google Docs have a Format Painter tool that will copy and apply basic formatting to any text! 

1. Highlight the formatting you want to apply. 

2. Select Format Painter

3. Highlight the text you want to change. 

Note: If using the Format Painter on the Reference List, you'll need to go back and add italics. 

Animated gif of using the Format Painter tool in Word.

CC License

Creative Commons License CC by NC 4.0 This guide is based on a guide created by Carolyn Caffrey Gardner and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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