This guide is a quick introduction to Chicago style, also called Turabian Style, and common citations. Consult the Chicago Manual of Style Online or check with a librarian for more detailed standards and procedures.
Skip to a section on this page:
Chicago style can take two forms. One form uses the combination of brief, in-text citations in the body of the paper and a reference list with full, corresponding citations at the end of the paper just like MLA and APA styles. This form of Chicago style is called the Author-Date system.
The other form is where, instead of in-text citations, raised numbers (called superscript) are used after quotes and paraphrases in the text of the paper. Each number corresponds to numbered notes at the "foot" or bottom of the page on which it appears, where a full citation is given. This section of each page in a paper is often called the footnotes or endnotes. This form often includes a full reference list, or bibliography, at the end of the paper. This form of Chicago style is called the Notes-and-Bibliography system.
To determine which form you should use, check with your instructor or check your assignment. Or, use the form that others in your field use or talk to a librarian.
Author's Last Name, First Name, Middle Name (Subsequent author names are reversed). "Title." Title of Source Volume number, Issue number (Month or Season and Year of Publication): page range. If online, Access Date and DOI or URL.
I'm citing a...
Scott, Niall. "Heavy Metal and the Deafening Threat of the Apolitical." Popular Music History 6, no. 1-2 (2011): 224–239.
Wortham, Stanton, Katherine Mortimer, and Elaine Allard. "Mexicans as Model Minorities in the New Latino Diaspora." Anthropology & Education Quarterly 40, no. 4 (2009): 388–404. Accessed May 20, 2021. doi:10.1111/j.1548-1492.2009.01058.x.
Badger, Emily. "San Francisco Restaurants Can’t Afford Waiters. So They’re Putting Diners to Work." New York Times, June 25, 2018.
Bonesteel, Matt. "Athletes’ Petition Calls for Congress to End Qualified Immunity for Police." The Washington Post, June 10, 2020. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A626236229/GPS?u=ccsf_main&sid=GPS&xid=ea03b337.
Carroll, Michael, and Rosaly M. C. Lopes. Antarctica : Earth’s Own Ice World, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2019.eBook
Lowe, Kelly Fisher. The Words and Music of Frank Zappa. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 2006. https://search-ebscohost-com.ccsf.idm.oclc.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=226247&site=ehost-live.
Perrone, Julie. "The 'House of Hockey': Spatialized Memories of the Montreal Forum" In The Same but Different : Hockey in Quebec, edited by Jason Blake and Andrew C. Holman. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2017.
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. "Protect Yourself with Vaccination". Accessed February 4, 2019. https://www.cdc.gov/features/adultvaccinations/.
Germain, Thomas. "Best Headphones for Under $50". Consumer Reports. Accessed May 25, 2021. https://www.consumerreports.org/headphones/best-headphones-for-under-50-dollars/.
Schwartzberg, Louis, director. Fantastic Fungi (2019), YouTube Movies, Film, 1:20. https://www.youtu.be/C7abxMxL4so.
PBS (Public Broadcasting Corporation). Women, Power and Politics (2008), Now, Television show, Aired September 19, http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/437.index.html.
Films Media Group. Signing Black in America (2021), Films on Demand, August 12, Video, :27. https://fod-infobase-com.ccsf.idm.oclc.org/p_ViewVideo.aspx?xtid=207032&tScript=0.
Hoffman, Hans, A Hare in the Forest, Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, ca 1585. https://www-artstor-org.ccsf.idm.oclc.org/2015/04/02/hopping-through-the-centuries-rabbits-in-art/#jp-carousel-11097.
University of Chicago, Map of Chicago and Suburbs, Chicago: Charles T. Gilbert Real Estate, University of Chicago Digital Preservation Collection, 1890. http://pi.lib.uchicago.edu/1001/cat/bib/3404258.
(Last Name Year, page(s)).
If you're quoting the exact words of someone else, introduce the quote with an in-text citation in parentheses. Page numbers are included in the in-text citation after a colon with no space. Any sentence punctuation goes after the closing parenthesis.
If you're directly quoting more than 40 words...
Use a blockquote. Block quotes don't need quotation marks, but are indented 1/2" as a visual cue of a citation.
Shavers (2007:1021) study found the following:
While research studies have established that socioeconomic status influences disease incidence, severity and access to healthcare, there has been relatively less study of the specific manner in which low SES influences receipt of quality care and consequent morbidity and mortality among patients with similar disease characteristics, particularly among those who have gained access to the healthcare system.
Tip: Use direct quotes sparingly! Research cited in a paper is focused more on the synthesis of findings from a variety of research studies, and less about the exact phrasing or argument of an individual.
Paraphrasing or summarizing the main findings or takeaways from a research article is the preferred method of citing sources in a Chicago style paper. Always include the last name of the author(s) and the year of the article, so your reader can find the full citation in the reference list.
According to Shavers (2007), limitations of studying socioeconomic status in research on health disparities include difficulties in collecting data on socioeconomic status and the complications of classifying women, children, and employment status, among others.
You only need the author's last name and the year with no quotation marks.
Connect both authors' last names with and and include the year.
(DeGarmo and Tate 1988)
If there are 3 authors...
In the first in-text citation:
(Peart, Lifeson, and Lee 2015)
In subsequent citations:
(Peart et al. 2015)
If there are 4+ authors...
You only need the first author's name followed by et al. and the year.
(Cornell et al. 2017)
1. Highlight the citaiton with your cursor.
2. Right click.
3. Select Paragraph.
4. Under Indentation, select Special and Hanging.
Microsoft Word and Google Docs have a Format Painter tool that will copy and apply basic formatting to any text!
1. Highlight the formatting you want to apply.
2. Select Format Painter.
3. Highlight the text you want to change.
Note: If using the Format Painter on the Reference List, you'll need to go back and add italics.
This guide is based on a guide created by Carolyn Caffrey Gardner and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.