MLA citations are made up of the following core elements in the order given below. Note: not every citation will include all 9 elements.
Image credit: Works Cited: A Quick Guide (MLA Style Center)
I'm citing a...
Castelli, Darla M., et al. "Healthy Outcomes for Teens Project: Diabetes Prevention through Distributed Interactive Learning." Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, vol. 13, no. 3, 2011, pp. 359-64. Gale Academic OneFile, doi.org/10.1089/dia.2010.0125
Takagi, Chiaki. "Third Space Wonderland and the End of the Modern: Representation of Tokyo in the Works of Murakami Haruki." Southeast Review of Asian Studies, vol. 32, 2010, pp. 193-198. Gale Academic OneFile, link.gale.com/apps/doc/A293544446/AONE?u=ccsf_main&sid=AONE&xid=958dfe04
Magazine Article (from a database)
Hiatt, Brian. "The Psychedelic Superhero."Rolling Stone, 1 Sep. 2011, pp. 48-74. ccsf.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f6h&AN=65034462&site=ehost-live.
Newspaper Article (from a website)
Cochrane, Emily, and Noah Weiland. "Hillary Clinton, the N.F.L., Roy Moore and Other Asides from the President." New York Times, 16 Nov. 2018, nyti.ms/2zf1TPB.
If an eBook accessed in a library database...
Bell, Suzanne S. Librarian's Guide to Online Searching: Cultivating Database Skills for Research and Instruction. 4th ed., Libraries Unlimited, 2015.
Siegel, Ethan. Beyond the Galaxy: How Humanity Looked beyond Our Milky Way and Discovered the Entire Universe. World Scientific, 2016. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost), search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=1105694&site=ehost-live
If an eBook chapter accessed from a library database...
Chapter from a Print Book
Jackson, Shirley. "The Lottery." An Introduction to Fiction, edited by X.J. Kennedy, 5th ed., HarperCollins, 1991, pp. 194-200.
Chapter from an eBook
Halopeau, Bruno. "Terrorist Use of the Internet." Cyber Crime and Cyber Terrorism Investigator's Handbook, edited by Babak Akhgar, Andrew Staniforth, and Francesca Bosco, Syngress, 2014. O'Reilly for Higher Education, learning.oreilly.com/library/view/cyber-crime-and/9780128007433/B9780128007433000104.xhtml.
"Coping with Stress." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3 Sep. 2019, www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/suicide/copingwith-stresstips.html.
"MLA Formatting and Style Guide." Purdue Online Writing Lab, owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_style/mla_formatting_and_style_guide/. Accessed 27 Nov. 2019.
See more about citing YouTube videos on the Ask the MLA Blog.
Schwartzberg, Louis. Fantastic Fungi. Moving Art, 2019. YouTube Movies, uploaded by Bitmax, 3 Sep 2020, youtu.be/C7abxMxL4so
See more examples of citing images from the MLA Style Center
Concretion of Ceramics from the Hoi An Shipwreck. approx. 1450-1500. Asian Art Museum Chong-Moon Lee Center for Asian Art and Culture, asianart.emuseum.com/view/objects/asitem/items$0040:14318.
Example of a Chapter in a Canvas Course page
See more about citing a document on a course management system from the MLA Style Center
Moskowitz, Peter. " Preface." Canvas, uploaded by Alissa Buckley, 17 Sep. 2021, ccsf.instructure.com/.
When using generative AI, such as ChatGPT, keep in mind that these tools make up sources if they cannot find them, and that they do not always accurately describe the information that they do get from information sources. It is always best to locate the original source of the information and view and cite that directly.
See more examples of citing generative AI, including AI-generated images, from the MLA Style Center
Write a research question about friendship and academic success. ChatGPT, 3 Aug. version, OpenAI, 14 Sept. 2023, chat.openai.com/chat.
(Last Name Page #).
You only need the author's last name and the page number
Connect both authors' last names with and, and include the page number.
(Best and Marcus 9)
Use the first author's last name and et al., and include the page number.
(Franck et al. 327)
Use a shortened title of the work and include the page number.
("Impact of Global Warming" 127)
Many online sources lack page numbers. (For articles, look for a .PDF version, which usually shows page numbers.) If your source has explicitly numbered or labeled sections or chapters, include it instead of a page number. If your source simply has no page numbers, then you can do either of these options:
Whichever option you choose, you must still list the source with a complete entry in the list of works cited.
1. Highlight the citation with your cursor.
2. Right click.
3. Select Paragraph.
4. Under Indentation, select Special and Hanging.